Energy Vampires: Ways to Reduce Energy Consumption Around the House

June 17, 2011

Energy Phantoms or Vampires account for approximately 5% of the electrical energy used in every household, spread that across every home in the US and it adds ups up to 65 billion kilowatt-hours of wasted electricity each year.

As quoted from the Investigations of Leaky Electricity in the USA  paper ….. the average US house leaks constantly about 50 Watts. This is approximately five percent of the residential electricity use in the US. Leaking electricity falls into three major categories: video, audio and communication. Video equipment such as TVs, VCRs, cable boxes and satellite earth stations account for the largest share of residential leaking electricity, approximately 35%. Audio equipment accounts for 25% of standby consumption, and communication devices (answering machines, cordless phones and fax machines) are responsible for an additional 10%.

Energy vampires  can be defined as electrical devices that consume an amount of energy by doing nothing but waiting to be activated or used. This standby mode can be most recognizable in TV’s, video and audio equipment. But it really goes way beyond that.

Some of the common energy wasters in most homes are the adapters (aka: wall warts) that come with rechargeable battery-powered cordless phones, cell phones, digital cameras. You will also find them with many music players, power tools, and other electronic devices.

Conceptually, if you can just unplug all of  them when not in use, this would solve much of the problem. Easier said than done. Being the techno geek that I am, there will always be a another way.

Techno Solutions:

  1. Individual Timers: You can use traditional electrical timers or this new style like this Belkin unit. It is designed specifically for applications that only need to be on for a certain amount of time where the specific time of the day is not important. At $10 bucks, it might be a good solution for your clothes iron, electric tooth-brush or MP3 player.
  2. Group Timers: Combined with a surge protector, these devices will not only protect the equipment connected, but also shut them down to cut off the phantom load. Price wise, they are still in the same range as a regular surge protector/power strip. Additionally, many of them include a couple of priority plugs that stay energized all the time.
  3. X10 Technology:  If you read my article on X10 Technology, you may  have already figured this out. Combined with your X10 units and the software package, you can set timed events for all of these devices. Or combine one with a power strip. If its possible; try to cluster all of these type devices into groups. Plug all of them into a  power strip, then plug the power strip into the X10 timer. Schedule the timer to run only a certain amount of hours per day. Probably 3-5 hours max.  For devices like televisions, DVR’s and audio equipment; try to do the same thing. If you dont use X10 timers, any traditional timer will work as well.   (TIP: If you have a cable box, U-Verse or satellite receiver, it would be best, not to cycle this device on and off. It is very normal for the service providers to perform late night downloads to update your software, turning them off at night may be problematic and cause you to have some service interruptions or cause you to miss some updates.)
  4. Energy Star Equipment: As part of the design specification, most energy star devices do a good job in reducing the phantom loads. However, because devices like televisions, microwaves and DVR’s usually have clocks in them, they will still use a little bit of energy. If you choose to shut these devices down, just understand that the device might require you to re-set the clock every time. The only way to find out, is to try it.

Managing Other Electric Devices: Here are a few tips for keeping the energy usage in check on the non-techy type equipment:

  1. Refrigerators: This device can use as much as 20% of your total consumed AC energy.   Most new refrigerators with electronic thermostats come preprogrammed to run 0F and 40F (freezer/refrigerator). If you have an older style, use a thermometer to make the adjustment. Set the freezer between 0-3F. TIP: Energy Star rated  refrigerators will make a significant impact on your energy usage.
  2. Clothes Dryers: Use the cold or warm cycle s as much as you can. Avoid the hot cycle.
  3. Dishwasher: Always run it full. Dry them cool instead of hot. Drying cool does not impact the dishwashers ability to sanitize the dishes. However, you may have to wipe them off before you store them. Doing this will reduce the dishwasher energy used by 20%.
  4.  Water Heater Thermostats: The default setting for water heaters is 140F, 120 will work in most cases. If you live in the southern part of the US, it is easy to drop the temperature during the summer. You will never notice the difference.
  5. Set Back Thermostat: Even though this does not technically fit into this article, it is a pivotal element in energy reduction. Worth an article on its own!!
  6. Energy Star Rating: Look here first when replacing appliances. These subtle changes will make positive affect on your overall energy usage

The Gas Gauge (Geek Overload): Believe it or not; studies show that if we are able to monitor the amount of usage of a product (while in use) it will cause us to use less. There are multiple devices on the market today; such as TED, Power Cost Monitor, and Energy Monitor that will provide instant feed back on energy usage. You will be able to see all the energy vampires at any time of the day. Some of them have software with data loging history, peak demand and the list goes on. Its pretty cool (geeky) to walk around the house and start yanking plugs and watching the meter drop. (NOTE: The devices mentioned may require  installation, in some cases they only work with certain brand of meters. Read the webpages carefully before purchasing).

Google Power Meter: In their “save the world mentality” Goggle has teamed with some utilitiy and equipment providers to allow you to view your usage on line. Neat idea and its free, but has limited availability.

TOP Household Electricity Vampires (Courtesy of Lawrence Berkley Laboratory)

Appliance Saturation Watts Watts / House
TV 180% 6 10.8
Cable boxes 50% 20 10.0
VCR 80% 10 8.0
Compact audio 67% 10 6.7
Answering machines 60% 5 3.0
Alarms 19% 15 2.9
Video games 55% 5 2.8
Portable stereos 65% 3 2.0
Rechargeable vacuum 20% 5 1.0
Cordless phones 49% 2 1.0
Fax 4% 15 0.6
Satellite 5% 11 0.6
Toothbrush 13% 3 0.4
Smoke detectors 84% 0.4 0.3
TOTAL 50.0

So what is this in dollars and cents. For example; if you use 1000kW per month at .12 per kW, that works out to be about $6 bucks a month. (1000X.12)*.05=6. Unless you are prepared to take some drastic measures, you may be lucky to cut 50 to 60% of that number. So look for $3-5 per 1000kW used as a target.

Okay, this article might be a little anal, to gain back $6 bucks a month as a payback period is not worth recognizing. However; look at it like a leaky faucet. Its not a bad idea, and long term its will save you a couple of bucks and if everyone did it we would have less dependency on the grid.

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Residential Surge Protection Using TVSS’s SPD’s Part II

June 7, 2009

damaged modemAn  analysis commissioned by State Farm Insurance found of 5500 detailed claims, more than half of the loss was related to telephone and electronic appliances.

As we become more connected through smart technology, AC power and low voltage or non-voltage carrying conductors become intertwined through the technology. When you think about it, more and more devices have an AC power cord  and a communications port for the transmission/reception of an external signal (video, DSL, etc.). Known as  “multi-port” equipment (AV Receivers, TV’s Modems, Computers, etc.) these devices add complexity to the transient voltage issue by creating additional doorways into the equipment. As we saw  in the AC Ground and Bonding article, external surges can enter the house as easily through the Telephone line, CATV or Satellite Dish as the AC utility. Studies show, even with a TVSS in the AC circuit, micro-electronics embedded in the equipment have failed due to transient voltages passing through the communications link. According to the same insurance study mentioned above, equipment including micro-electronics such as computers, TV’s, VCR’s and Satellite receivers recorded more significant losses than single-port equipment. This is not news to most of us. However, the point to recognize here is that any incoming services that arrive inside the house on a current carrying conductor (copper wire) has the potential to allow a voltage surge into the house and into our electronic equipment.

To make matters worse, having proper surge protection on the AC service and not on non-power related services may actually enhance the opportunity for a fault to occur in the multi-port equipment through surge current.  This  surge current  can create a  voltage shift  at the secondary-port on the equipment producing damage in the equipment. This voltage shift condition can also be rooted to a difference in voltage potential or ground reference at (you guessed it) the service entrance ground. This is the reason why we have seen more emphasis from the standards bodies (National Electric Code and National Institute of Standards Institute)  on the common grounding and bonding of all the incoming services (Telephone, CATV and Satellite TV) found in a typical residence. For this reason, in 1992 the IEEE  recognized this potential fault condition and coined the term Surge Reference Equalizer. Even though the industry has not really picked up on the term nor have they created a specific standard, the  UL1449 listing for this Class B surge protectors is acceptable for the time being.

 Proper Bonding and Grounding  Remain the Key Contributor to Both the Problem and the Solution

If you have read the four articles up to this point, you may think I am beating this subject to death, but grounding/bonding  remains the key contributor to both the problem and the solution. Complete the 8 point check list found in the AC Service Bond and Ground Part II.  If your house is less than 10 years old, it would be a fair assumption that all the incoming services enter near or at the AC service meter. Assuming all the services are bonded correctly as mentioned, you should be in good shape with the Telephone and CATV. For the rest of us, these services could attach any where around the house this also includes Satellite TV Antennas.  If possible, bringing all of these services within 20 feet of the AC Service entrance and attaching them as mentioned will assist in improving the ground system. (TIP: Satellite installations are typically located where they provide the best signal, bringing the ground termination from AC service entrance is important here as well).

Surge Reference Equalizer

surge protector class b 2At this point, we will assume that you have a good common ground with an equal ground reference. With that said you have successfully reduced the risk to multi-port equipment, BUT, both the IEEE and the NIST support the use of the Surge Reference Equalizer. As pictured, it looks like a typical Class B surge protector, but also has ports for communications ( RJ45 terminal, and threaded CATV terminal. With this type of TVSS there will be a PORT-IN and PORT-OUT set of connections.  Consider a Class B surge protector that includes both communication ports and CATV connections collectively in the same product for home theater equipment, set top boxes, satellite equipment, computers and any other mutli-port electrical equipment.  

Additionally Square D has release a whole house model that includes a Class C surge protector and the connections for Telco and CATV services. Tiered protection is still recommended if you decide to follow the whole house approach. (Square D Model SDSB1175C). NOTE: This method of reference equalizer is fairly new as previous practices supported keeping the services segregated until the point of termination, (CATV, Phone) independently until they reach the point of  use or the device that is common (i.e. TV, PC). As you will note, that is how I built my system. This is still an acceptable solution. 

Additional Choices – Surge Protection for Communication, CATV and Satellite:

Telephone Service: Most wire-line telephone service companies provide surge protection. If your telephone service was installed less NIDthan 10 years ago or has been worked on in that time frame you will probably have a NID (Network Interface Device) at the telephone entrance.  Telephone companies typically use “Gas filled arrestors”. Even though you may not have a NID, you probably have gas arrestors  if your phone  has been serviced in the last 20 years. Gas arrestors replace Carbon arrestors as the gas style will defeat the surge without a long term loss in service as they will self restore automatically. Since I built my grounding system before the Surge Reference Equalizer was readily available,  I placed an additional surge suppresor on my telephone line (Channel Vision C-0410). Much like the Telco provided unit it will disconnect the line in the event of a surge then restore it momentarily. Based on the performance characteristics of a Surge Reference Equalizer (SRE), in theory, I may still have a fault occur if my ground reference is not equalized and my Category A, B and C surge protectors are unable to defeat the surge prior to entering any of the protected equipment.  Since the current UL1449 is the only published document and it seems to favor an AC type failure,  for now, I am staying with my current system architecture using the C-0410  surge protection. TIP: You may have communications and/or video services provided by fiber optics. They will not have surge protection as optical services are unable to carry voltage or surge current.  If you are unsure if you have fiber optic services, the NID will have a consumer replaceable battery pack that you were informed about during the installation of the services.

4EDHICCAOT4EQ5CAS0S8SJCAJTJ6C8CATZJ50ECAZ5INCICAHEAI1MCAUYSD7KCAH7U0MDCAW5L3WSCA19XS37CAG3S3RACAVHVBMWCAXWUAI6CAED0UDWCAI9J2UFCAR71UZ8CA65BE4DCAQB2POKCATV and Satillite Services:In practice, the gas style arrestor  is used in these services as well. Because they use coax as a cable medium the arrestor looks a little different but perform in a similar fashion as the communications arrestor.

Theory vs. Science

One of the difficulties with this subject is it is very difficult to test your solution. To replicate a surge equivalent to a lightning strike is not feasible nor recommended. For this reason, surge protection, TVSS’s, SPD’s and bonding and grounding is not as black and white as we would like it to be and neither are the solutions. As you have seen in this article , there may be multiple solutions to the methods I have described. But overall, the method should still retain the same theme.   I have engineered large systems in multi story buildings and spent hundreds of thousands of dollars (not mine) to create the right grounding network  and still had recordable faults, so don’t think you will ever be 100% protected.  

One of the best articles written to date for residential bonding/grounding and surge protection is “Surges Happen”   produced by the Institute of Standards and Technology. This article covers the topic in very simple language and easy to understand instructions.

If you haven’t already, you may also want to read my 4 previous articles; AC Ground and Bonding, Electrical Switches and Outlets, AC Service Bond and Ground Part II, Residential AC Surge Protectors,

Key Inspection Points and Action Items:

  1. Annually check all your TVSS devices to insure the they remain in the protected mode (LED indicator).
  2. Follow the inspection routines as defined in AC Service Ground and Bonding Network by inspecting the mechanical connections and terminations.

In writing this series, it became apparent that I could not cover the subject in 1 or 2 postings. I hope I kept your attention and it made sense. Feel free to comment or send specific questions to Homeownerbob@gmail.com


Residential AC Surge Protection Using SPD’s and TVSS’s

May 31, 2009

lightningNeither the IEEE (Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers) or ANSI (American National Standards Institute) recognize Joule Rating as a means to determine any level of surge protection.

The best way to deal with electrical surges and spikes is to divert them from entering the house in the first place. This is why the external ground system mentioned in Part II is so important. Spikes and surges look for the quickest and shortest path to ground.  Industry Standards recognize that creating a tiered or layered approach to transient voltage  management for your house will provide the best protection, but it’s still no guarantee. Lightning strikes and surges can appear to have their own mind when it comes to seeking ground.  Following the recommendations that I have mentioned in this series of articles will assist in properly protecting  you and your house.

Layered Approach to Surge Suppression

Approaching  surge protection with tiers serves to create layers of  filtering .  ANSI and IEEE acknowledge 3 tiers, A, B and C.  Each level is recognized to provide protection for a defined application. Look at the following drawing to visualize the different tiers and location of the protection device. Class C is located at the service entrance or meter, Class B serves sub-panels and points of distribution (power strips), and Class A provides protection at the source or point of use (POU).

 TVSSv2

Most whole house residential grade TVSS’s  (transient voltage surge suppressor) use MOV’s (metal oxide varistors) for protection. By design, the TVSS does not absorb the fault but divert it to ground. By doing so, these faults erode the MOV’s over time. For this reason, most high quality TVSS’s include some form of “wellness” indicator or failure alarm (red or green LED lamp). Once the MOV’s are destroyed, the lamp indicator is extinguished or in some cases sets off an alarm. Studies show these MOV equipped TVSS’s can last up to 10 years. Granted, this life expectancy is directly impacted by the number of spikes and surges diverted by the MOV’s. So if you live near me in Texas, Oklahoma or places with lots of lightning, don’t count on the 10 years of life. 

The IEEE  recognizes three classes of surge protection and they all perform a defined task, but regardless of the class, all the surge protectors should meet these standards.

  • Listed  with UL 1449 Second addition (not meets, complies or designed to). TIP: If a product is “listed” with UL, Underwriters Labratory actully tested it for compliance to the standard.
  • Comply with ANSI/IEEE C62.41 as it pertains to the class category (C, B or A)
  • SVR rating of 400V or less (probably the most important rating)
  • Per phase rating of 70,000A or less
  • TVSS shall protect against line to line, line to ground  and neutral to ground voltage transients
  • Include visual indicators (red or green LED) for proper operation or failure of the TVSS
  • Class C & B devices shall operate bi-directional and treat both positive and negative impulses, yielding line control and short fliker ride-through. If the Class A does this that’s good too, but more important in the Class B and C
  • In shopping for a TVSS (aka SPD or Surge Protection Device) look for this information on the box or possibly in the fine print with the instructions.

    Surge Protection Devices come in many shapes and sizes at each class allowing you different choices. If you choose to install a Class C unit, you may have to employe an electrician, otherwise  you can use plug-in modules for the other two levels. 

    Class C Whole House TVSS Suppressors for Service Entrance Applications: Intended to be located at the incoming AC service or AC service panel. For various reasons, there are multiple types and styles for Class C residential TVSS’s. Hopefully one of these styles can be integrated into you electrical system.

    8MLB34CAXTULUCCA683WXWCAZ9RMICCAAJD0LLCA2TBUMZCAJP70R2CAQBLV90CAXW8Z0KCAD3SO8UCAWLMVA8CAW85X0MCA09XOTYCAIKMTBACAXK0BG6CAGJA7AICA11C7C0CAZRGZN5CASXME2QMeter Base TVSS: In some municipalities the utility carrier may offer to sell or lease you this type of TVSS. Other than the fact they will probably want to charge you a monthly fee, I like the meter base style. This TVSS is placed in the circuit prior to entering the house service panel. This allows the TVSS to divert any external surge to ground prior to entering the AC Service Panel where a surge could go through the house instead of the intended ground source.   I spoke with my electric provider but they did not offer this service nor would they allow me to supply my own.

     Circuit Breaker Derived TVSS: With this design, the TVSS is wired into the house AC Service panel. Like most, it is equipped KGXLCICAK8YY0ACA4Y6SENCAT00S0QCA8ILWGGCAI4RG93CAPL7N6JCAIOLQEOCA89V8DICADV5D7SCAFP6C2ZCA6SSVLQCACWP20OCA0IU2YTCARFBJFUCAW6A4B2CABBYFDICAZGFPHTCAIU4OGSwith MOV’s and a state of health LED lamps. These styles can be purchased for both indoor and outdoor applications (indoor model pictured). The key here is to keep the TVSS installation as close as possible to the service panel and the connection wire should be as with the short as possible (6″ or less). For my house I also re-arranged my circuit breakers in the panel to allow me to place the TVSS circuit breakers as close to the incoming mains as possible. This is just a little added work to divert the surge as soon as it enters the panel. 

    QO Breaker TVSSAC Panel Based TVSS: Similar to the circuit breaker design previously mentioned. This breaker style TVSS consumes 2 breaker positions to provide panel protection. The advantage of this type is that it connects directly to the bus terminations in the AC Service panel. The disadvantage is that it consumes two positions and you may not be able to locate one that fits your AC service panel. 

    Power StripClass B  TVSS Suppressors for Distribution and Short Branch Circuits: As a classification the “B” type is recognized to serve electrical sub-panels and distribution, meaning a power strip with multiple outlet with a collection of devices to protect.   The Class B is the most common type found in electronics, computer stores and home centers. You will have numerous to choose from. Just remember to use the criteria listed above to  help with your choice. I would not use the joules rating as part of your decision making process.  Belkin surge protector

      Class A TVSS Point of Use Surge Protection Device for Outlet and Long Branch Circuits:  As a Class A TVSS, this device can either be an individual plug-in module (as pictured) or the outlet itself. I have used both and depending on the application the outlet version can be a better choice when you have limited space, such as behind a refrigerator or Plasma TV. Additionally, I found the outlet style more difficult to obtain and more than double the cost of the plug-in style. They both include the proper operation indicator. 

     By this point you should recognize two major points. 1)  Having proper grounding is imperative and, 2) surge suppression goes beyond point of use (POU) devices, 3) implementing a tiered approach is necessary to protect you and your household adequately. 

    Believe it or not…. there is still more. Next time I will discuss specific surge protection for your CATV and Telephone service.

    You may also want to read: Electrical Switches and Outlets, AC Service Ground and Bonding, AC Service Ground Part II,


    AC Service Ground and Bonding Connections Part II

    May 17, 2009

    electricalLightning is responsible for more than $5 billion in total insurance industry losses annually, according to Hartford Insurance Company.

      Here in the Southwest the weather is struggling between winter and spring which brings heavy rains and torrential thunderstorms. These conditions increase the opportunity for electrical surges and spikes. The impact of these storms can cause both personal and property damage. Proper grounding and surge protection can  be your best defense.

    Unplugging electronic devices was the old school method of protecting our electronics, however with more microprocessor based equipment that may be built-in or hardwired it becomes difficult to do that.  This can be good and bad. On the good side, this “smart” technology can allow our washing machines to weigh the clothes to determine how much water to use, to our sprinkler systems determining how moist the soil is before it waters our landscape. On the bad side, all of these electronic devices are highly susceptible to the negative effect of power surges and spikes. Any technology less than 10 years old can easily be a candidate for failure due to technological advances based on micro-processor based technology. With all that said, it becomes very important to protect all of these devices from electrical surges and spikes. Even if you live in an area with very little lightening, or thunderstorms, your equipment is still subject to utility and equipment based electrical surges. 

    Even though most of us recognize electrical surges as they occur from outside sources, (severe storms, etc.) power fluctuations (or spikes)  from utility switching equipment and even equipment within our house have the ability to create power transients that can have an impact.  So, to properly protect you and your house, you may consider going beyond the typical power strip or point of use (POU) surge protector by having multiple layers of protection.  Obviously, equipment such as a Flat Panel TV, computer or audio equipment require point of use (POU) surge protectors but including  Surge Protection at the point of entry (electrical service panel) will also provide protection for items such as dishwashers, HVAC systems, microwave ovens, washers, dryers and so on.    

    tt43kicamiqr72cajlxf3qcaqg2uy9cataa1tgcaozp5xycal1ce1jcanvsd5ycaf7gwszca1aq9vncaubtid9cayql0nrcav7a5t3ca26lasucaabxmn3ca179qr3cagr0p6uca5rqldfca8ochrrProper surge protection cannot be discussed without stressing the importance of  a grounding network for your house. My article on bonding & grounding covers how to identify and inspect your system, but the subject warrants a bit more discussion. The reality of the situation is that your household experiences electrical spikes and surges regularly even without a storm in sight and the source can be any incoming services (Commercial AC, CATV, Satellite TV and Telephone Service) as well as electrical appliances in your house. 

    Both the National Electric Code (NEC) and National Institute of Standards recognize the importance of proper grounding  by providing recommendations and standards to increase this level of protection. Read the following articles before you go too much further. For your house to be properly protected, the integrity of the complete house is essential. Bonding and Grounding, Electrical Switches and Outlets (especially testing of the outlets). TIP:  Any outlet without proper grounding should not be used for any electrical equipment that requires protection even when you have a POU surge protector plugged in.

    Ensure your grounding systems is up to par:

    1. Test all your outlets as mentioned above.
    2. If your house is over 30 years old and the electrical service has never been upgraded, the water pipe may be the only source of ground. Adding a ground rod would be a good idea at this point. Add the ground rod near the electrical service meter and a new wire between the rod and the ground termination bar in the service panel. It’s okay to leave the cold water pipe connection in tack. The grounding schematic  found below is considered a perfect world design. Creating this form of grounding arrangement will optimize your ground system.
    3. Grounding SchematicIf you have a ground rod and it is over 20 years old, it may be time add a new one. Underwriters Laboratory (UL) recognizes standard copper clad ground rod have a life expectancy of 20 years. If the electrical system has not been upgraded, replacing the ground rod will be cheap insurance.  Its perfectly okay to have multiple ground rods connected together in an array. 
    4. National Standards recognize ground systems with less than 5 ohms of resistance as being acceptable. Unless you live in a very dry climate or have known issues, testing an installed ground rod may not be necessary. If you are thinking you need to replace it,  it’s cheaper to just add it than have it tested.OYL94SCAGD0QOUCAYL04A3CAWYLBW6CAAH81G0CA0L2SH0CAHPGADSCAA7UEPWCAR3W6D8CAEFUGXNCAWGM712CAE6Z75SCAHKAUTPCAM64A17CAYGWHLQCAY41LE9CAXSYBESCAAW9HKRCASITYXC
    5. Ensure that all CATV, Telephone, Satellite services are collectively grounded at the same location as the AC service. TIP:  The closer these services are to each other and the shorter the ground wires used to connect them; the better.  Using the proper grounding hardware, the ground wires can be connected together at the ground rod, or you can use a collection device like the one pictured.    
    6. NEVER EVER connect a ground wire or ground rod to a natural gas pipe.
    7. As noted in the Grounding Bonding Post, having all the incoming services enter the building in the same general vicinity is most desirable.  TIP: With existing houses, these services may already be installed. If you are remodeling or building, keep this item in mind as you go through the process.   When the services all enter from different locations, surges may travel through the house to reach the intended ground source. Unfortunately in those type cases, this can increase the opportunity for the surge to follow an unintended path that may include passing through a television or computer.
    8. Following these items will reduce the risk and opportunity for surges and spikes, however damage from direct strikes are nearly unavoidable. 

     Odds Stacked Against You:  Having  a good ground system as mentioned above will protect you in most cases, however there are certain issues that will work against you. Some of the conditions you can change,  some not. Either way you need to be aware of them. 

    1. Tall structure; having the tallest structure in the general vicinity
    2. Having the largest or tallest trees in the area
    3. Large antennas, such as amateur radio
    4. Located near open water
    5. Older vintage building wiring systems that did not include proper or adequate grounding
    6. Living in an area served by aerial electrical, telephone or CATV lines
    7. Living in an older neighborhood with numerous tree’s in the utility easements
    8. A combination of any of the previously mentioned situations

    I know this is a lot of information, but these grounding issues are regularly overlooked until a failure or problem has occurred. If you see the value of this, but its over your head, consult with an electrician about evaluating your system and performing the upgrades for you. My next article will cover the actual surge suppression devices (aka. TVSS). We will see the different classes of TVSS’s, where and how to apply them  and how to recognize a good one.  Look for my next post on Residential AC Surge Protection Using SPD’s and TVSS’s.


    AC Service Ground and Bonding Connections

    February 7, 2009

    groundtermination Service Ground/Bonding Connections: Bonding and grounding are actually two subjects, but for the purpose of this article, “Bonding” serves to protect the individual from electrical shock where “Grounding” can provide a fault path for stray electrical current that might originate from a faulty electrical device or an electrical storm.  Both work hand in hand.

    Near the meter base, there should be a small wire about the size of a small straw or bigger, connected to a metal (copper/copper clad) rod. The wire could be solid, stranded with a plastic sheath or bare copper. The AC Service Panel will dictate the size of this conductor.

    Visually follow the wire to see where it goes.  This wire may go to a ground rod and/or  water pipe. Typically you should find a ground conductor attached to both as well as the electrical panel it self.  It should be firmly attached. Normally this ground wire should not have any electrical current passing through it and should be safe to touch. If the attachment is clean of corrosion and secure, no further action is required. If you find the conductor(s) cut, severed or disconnected, they must be reattached or replaced. If the conductor is completely severed, replacement is about your only choice as the NEC (National Electric Code) does not allow splicing of this conductor.  If the ground termination has signs of excessive corrosion, it should be cleaned and tightened. TIP: Clean the corrosion in the same method you would clean a automotive battery terminal. This is a very important part of the electrical system and its integrity is for your safety and your home. If you are unable to replace the conductor, hiring a professional is probably your only choice.

    Coming from the telecommunications industry, bonding and grounding was near religion. Resources were dedicated to inspect, validate and correct grounding/bonding issues regularly in large facilities. Within that plan there was typically a grounding schematic detailing proper grounding/bonding for that office. Even though every office was different, the schematic was still the same.  As we bring more sophisticated electronics into our house, a similar method is being adopted for the house. If you are a real techno-nerd and have lots of electronic gizmo’s in your house, having your house well grounded  is imperative in ensuring your equipment works well and protected from faults that may occur.  Be sure and read AC Service Ground and Bonding Connections Part II Also if you are really bored look at this Surge Protectiondocument  from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

    With more electronics in the house, the National Electric Code (NEC) now includes the use of a bonding collection device in the current 2008 code for this purpose bringing all these ancillary grounding terminations to one location.  You will probably not have one of these devices in your house as will take the industry some time to catch up. Granted, you don’t need the device to comply with the code or complete a good grounding system but it does meet the specific need. 

    Surges and faults are typically blamed on the electrical utility but in reality the Telephone and CATV are just as large of contributor.

    You may find several ground terminations throughout your household associated with TV or Radio antennas, cable, satellite television and telephone services. Typically they will be attached to the ground system and/or the cold water pipe as this water pipe should be connected to the ground/bonding system. TIP: These devices might be connected at various locations in different ways, so don’t be surprised if you see them bonded to the AC Service Mast or piggy backed onto the ground wire with a stirrup or saddle clamp. Regardless of their location, their integrity is important to your safety and the safety of your home as well as the electrical equipment  you own.  Inspect these ground termination in the same respect as the electrical service grounding/bonding termination. In a perfect world all cables would attach to the same side of the house and the ground wires would be short and fairly straight and bringing them through the house to collect them would be avoided as any surge event will travel through the house to get to the other side and will reek havoc along the way on its search to the ground source.

    With the increased use of highly sensitive electronics found in the home, proper grounding is becoming even more important. Look for a future article on surge protection and TVSS devices.

    Key Inspection Points and Corrective Action

    1. Visually check the ground conductor(s) for physical integrity.
    2. If the conductor is completely severed, it must be replaced.
    3. Visually inspect all ancillary connections (cable, telephone, etc.).
    4. Are all ground terminations clean, secure and tight? Excessive corrosion at the terminations should be cleaned.