Plumbing-City Water Pressure

February 28, 2009

plumbing-faucetCommon water pressure should be somewhere between 45 and 125 psi.

There are many contributing factors that impact this value that may include 1) distances to the water source, 2) size of the distribution lines, 3) elevation of the water supply, 4) primary water line size and the list goes on. However, your plumbing system should work correctly if the pressure is within the 45/125 psi range. If you have just moved from the city to a rural area, do not be surprised if the water pressure is lower than what you have been used to. Contact your water provider to determine if they are within their specification at your house.  (If your house is served by your own well, the primary pump will determine the pressure. Wells will be covered as a separate post.) There is no maintenance inspection associated with the water pressure item other than knowing what it is as a reference as it can cause the system to act differently than normal. Recognizing the  changes will help to determine if any action is required during high pressure conditions, you may experience excessively noisy pipes, clanging or hammering. Low pressure is pretty obvious… low pressure and low flow. Typically, these conditions can be associated with the service provider performing work that required them to open up or turn off the water near by. If the condition does not pass in 24 hours, you may call them to determine how long the condition could continue.  TIP: If you experience low pressure, take the opportunity to fill up some gallon jugs as you may totally loose water pressure before the water line repair is fixed.

waterpressure-gaugeIf you suspect your water pressure to be out of range, you can check it using an inexpensive pressure gauge available at most any home improvement center. To check your water pressure, simply screw the pressure gauge on to an outside faucet (TIP: closest to the water meter) and open the faucet. This will provide an accurate reading. If you find it to be low or high and intend to call the water department, provide them the reading to assist them in their resolution. (TIPKnowing what the water pressure is, under normal conditions, is also valuable information

Since water lines stay under pressure and are considered a closed system, turning the water off, opening the pipes(s) and exposing the interior of the water line allows dirt and mud into the system. It doesn’t matter whether the work  is performed by the water provider, plumber or yourself, it can cause clogged water filters, strainers and faucet nozzles. If you are aware of the work, wait about three days, then clean your faucet strainers/nozzles/filters. Look for a future post on this subject. Plumbing-Faucets.

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AC Service Ground and Bonding Connections

February 7, 2009

groundtermination Service Ground/Bonding Connections: Bonding and grounding are actually two subjects, but for the purpose of this article, “Bonding” serves to protect the individual from electrical shock where “Grounding” can provide a fault path for stray electrical current that might originate from a faulty electrical device or an electrical storm.  Both work hand in hand.

Near the meter base, there should be a small wire about the size of a small straw or bigger, connected to a metal (copper/copper clad) rod. The wire could be solid, stranded with a plastic sheath or bare copper. The AC Service Panel will dictate the size of this conductor.

Visually follow the wire to see where it goes.  This wire may go to a ground rod and/or  water pipe. Typically you should find a ground conductor attached to both as well as the electrical panel it self.  It should be firmly attached. Normally this ground wire should not have any electrical current passing through it and should be safe to touch. If the attachment is clean of corrosion and secure, no further action is required. If you find the conductor(s) cut, severed or disconnected, they must be reattached or replaced. If the conductor is completely severed, replacement is about your only choice as the NEC (National Electric Code) does not allow splicing of this conductor.  If the ground termination has signs of excessive corrosion, it should be cleaned and tightened. TIP: Clean the corrosion in the same method you would clean a automotive battery terminal. This is a very important part of the electrical system and its integrity is for your safety and your home. If you are unable to replace the conductor, hiring a professional is probably your only choice.

Coming from the telecommunications industry, bonding and grounding was near religion. Resources were dedicated to inspect, validate and correct grounding/bonding issues regularly in large facilities. Within that plan there was typically a grounding schematic detailing proper grounding/bonding for that office. Even though every office was different, the schematic was still the same.  As we bring more sophisticated electronics into our house, a similar method is being adopted for the house. If you are a real techno-nerd and have lots of electronic gizmo’s in your house, having your house well grounded  is imperative in ensuring your equipment works well and protected from faults that may occur.  Be sure and read AC Service Ground and Bonding Connections Part II Also if you are really bored look at this Surge Protectiondocument  from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

With more electronics in the house, the National Electric Code (NEC) now includes the use of a bonding collection device in the current 2008 code for this purpose bringing all these ancillary grounding terminations to one location.  You will probably not have one of these devices in your house as will take the industry some time to catch up. Granted, you don’t need the device to comply with the code or complete a good grounding system but it does meet the specific need. 

Surges and faults are typically blamed on the electrical utility but in reality the Telephone and CATV are just as large of contributor.

You may find several ground terminations throughout your household associated with TV or Radio antennas, cable, satellite television and telephone services. Typically they will be attached to the ground system and/or the cold water pipe as this water pipe should be connected to the ground/bonding system. TIP: These devices might be connected at various locations in different ways, so don’t be surprised if you see them bonded to the AC Service Mast or piggy backed onto the ground wire with a stirrup or saddle clamp. Regardless of their location, their integrity is important to your safety and the safety of your home as well as the electrical equipment  you own.  Inspect these ground termination in the same respect as the electrical service grounding/bonding termination. In a perfect world all cables would attach to the same side of the house and the ground wires would be short and fairly straight and bringing them through the house to collect them would be avoided as any surge event will travel through the house to get to the other side and will reek havoc along the way on its search to the ground source.

With the increased use of highly sensitive electronics found in the home, proper grounding is becoming even more important. Look for a future article on surge protection and TVSS devices.

Key Inspection Points and Corrective Action

  1. Visually check the ground conductor(s) for physical integrity.
  2. If the conductor is completely severed, it must be replaced.
  3. Visually inspect all ancillary connections (cable, telephone, etc.).
  4. Are all ground terminations clean, secure and tight? Excessive corrosion at the terminations should be cleaned.