Watering Your Foundation – A Permanent Solution

October 13, 2017

Several months back I wrote a post about Watering Your Foundation, after that I wrote  Watering Your Foundation – Getting Ready for Summer and in that post I promised a final follow-up on creating a permanent solution to creating a low maintenance solution that removes most of the problems associated with earlier solutions. Granted, this one is a bit more work and on a DIY scale of 1-10 10 being the hardest, I would give this a 7-8 (depending on what you may or may not already have. Since you have already read the last two, no need to go through the why and what for, but to just pick it up from the last post. Since the summer is (mostly) over, this might be a good project to complete with the weather is still pleasant.

The biggest advantages to this solution vs. the last one is, convenience, and integration into a lawn sprinkler system.

Things you will need to for this to work with the least amount of inconvenience and disruption. This solution is based on having all three of the listed conditions. However, any of these items can be added, but it can dramatically impact the cost to provide it.

  1. Preexisting  lawn sprinkler system in good working order and a timer/controller
  2. The timer/controller will need to have at least one extra or vacant station assignment. If you have more station numbers than active stations you probably have an extra one.
  3. You will need to determine if you have a spare controller wire (in the controller) and you will have to locate that same wire outside.

The next step is to create a new zone or station on your lawn sprinkler system.  I will cover the basic process but if you have never really cut into your system, this might be the time to get some knowledgeable help or hire a sprinkler contractor to build you a new zone.

Create a New Sprinkler Zone

  1. Find a sprinkler zone  that has its control valve close to the house.
  2. Dig up the dirt around the control valve enough to expose the control valve and the associated water pipe that feeds the valve. Figure out which side of the valve has pressure on it (all the time).
  3. Determine that the spare wire you located in the timer/controller shows up here too! Us a volt ohm meter as a continuity tester to confirm.
  4. The pipe feeding the valve is under pressure, so you will need to turn the water off at the source before you do it.
  5. To determine which is the pressure side, there should be an arrow, or water flow indicator on the valve body.
  6. .Cut the pipe, Tee in a joint  to install a new valve.
  7. Install a drip zone flow control valve equipped with a filter assembly. This valve will keep the flow in spec as well as keep the emitter from getting stopped up.
  8. Extend a wire from the existing valve to the new valve including a common (usually white) and a new wire that you are picking up from the controller timer.
  9. Make sure the new valve is closed and turn the water back on and check for leaks.
  10. If you want to test it at this point, go right ahead, but realize if you did this correctly, it’s gonna get real muddy real quick.

Parts Needed for the Drip Emitter Foundation Watering System

  1. 1/2 poly hose to use for areas that do not need the emmiters
  2. 1/2 Emitter tube, used to circle the house
  3. Various connector/fittings. You will need some fitting to go around tight corners since the pipe does not make sharp corners as well as connecting to the valve.
  4. Landscape anchor staples; use to pin the tubing down in place while you are installing it.

Install the  System

  1. Dig a ditch from the new valve to about 12-16 inches from the foundation to conceal the feeder pipe so it will not be exposed to damage in the yard.
  2. Depth of new emitter hose is kind of “it depends”, so in other words, it can be on the surface or 3-12 inches below the surface. Either way, realize that when gardening or digging around the flower beds, if you hit the emitter pipe, you can easily cut it. So regardless of the depth, after gardening, run the section to identify any leaks.
  3.  Since you are probably 10 or more feet from the house, you may want to use 1/2 poly hose from the valve to the house foundation (unless the valve is already at the foundation, then you can just start with emitter hose). You can buy shorter lengths of this from the big box store, but depending on your house arrangement, you may want to use this pipe in places you do not need to water
  4. Connect the emitter tube and route through the landscape staying about 12″ from the edge of the foundation. This tubing is sort of stiff, so use a connector to make a sharp bend. Use the landscape staples to keep it in its place.
  5. There are no rules to stop you from installing a Tee and going both ways around the house, and if you have to branch out, that is fine too. 100 feet is the limitation of the emitter tube from the valve, but you can tee it in to two 100 ft lengths.
  6. Make the electrical connection at the sprinkler controller and program in the new zone. You can have a summer and winter time schedule, but its good to water this zone all year long, again to keep the soil close to a constant moisture level.

 

 

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Seasonal Reminder – Lawn Sprinker Tuneup

April 5, 2016

If you are a follower of this blog, lawn sprinklers seems to be a regular topic. I get more hits on this one subject than all the rest. After reviewing  the current articles I found that I lacked a straight up, “seasonal tune up” article. So, for this weeks post I am going to walk through a methodical process of checking your sprinkler system. Generally speaking this is about a system that is designed correctly and  working properly.  I typically do this at the beginning of the watering season then again in mid-summer.

Material/Tools Needed:

  1. Spare sprinkler bodies: You should normally keep some extra sprinkler bodies that resemble the product that was installed with your system. Having identical sprinkler bodies will keep replacement and repairs simple.
  2. A handful of various sprinkler nozzles: Even though there may be several types of sprinkler heads (pop up, rotary or impact), it is important to have extra copies of the same nozzle that are being used in the various zones. Even though many home centers prefer to sell you the sprinkler body with the nozzle, having them as separate items will save you time and money.
  3.  Sharpshooter Shovel:  This particular shovel works well when working on sprinklers as you can dig around a sprinkler without disturbing too much dirt. Dirt and dirty water  is the enemy when it comes to working on sprinkler systems.
  4.  Sprinkler flags: You will probably have to buy these in a pack of 100, but it will be less than $10. You will use these to mark sprinkler heads that require attention.
  5. Screwdrivers: 1 small screw driver, 1 medium screw driver (flat and Phillips head style). These will be used to disassemble nozzles and some heads.
  6. Dental tool: Something like this link will work; these can also be found at the Orange Box store. It is very common for sprinkler nozzles to capture small pebbles that will lodge in the nozzle disrupting the sprinkler spray pattern. You will want to pick out the debris without damaging the plastic.
  7. 1 pair of medium-sized Channel Lock pliers: These can be used to adjust, tighten and loosen the body of the sprinkler head especially if your hands are wet.
  8. 1 pair of medium-sized vise grips: Used as a way to extract nozzles from pop-up heads by lightly holding the nozzle riser exposed. Never use a lot of pressure as you can easily damage the sprinkler head.
  9. WD 40 Lubricant Spray: Used to lubricate various parts that are supposed to move or react to the water pressure. WD40 is a fish oil based product and should not damage the grass.

SPRINKLER TESTING PROCEDURE:

  1. Activate the test sequence in the Sprinkler Controller: Most controllers have a test function that allows you to run the system in short intervals. If you can choose the time limit, set it to two minutes. If your controller does not have this function, you can have a friend turn the sections on one by one. TIP: If you have to do this manually, find some walkie-talkies to communicate with your partner.
  2. Find the first zone that is running:  Carrying your sprinkler flags, walk around and through the zone that is running, looking for the six items mentioned below. Use the flag to identify problems. However, try to realign the heads in this first sequence while the zone is running. Use the Channel Lock to grab the body to make adjustments.
  3. Repeat #2 for all the zones: I find the sprinkler flags really help, cause you can go directly back to each problem once you have made it through the entire system.
  4. Repair, replace  or adjust the heads as required: One of the most  important elements of sprinkler repair is to avoid introducing dirty water into the system. The dirt will make its way to all the downstream head and clog them up. If you find a broken head or pipe within your inspection, you may have to clean all the nozzles (see #2 below) in that zone.
  5. Run the test sequence again: As a final step, run the system one last time to ensure that everything is operating to your expectations.

Common Problems and Solutions:

  1. Misaligned Heads: Heads that are used around the perimeter of a property typically use patterns less than “full circle”. These heads will require occasional realignment to keep them from spraying on a sidewalk, fence or house. You can  adjust  either the nozzle, neck or sprinkler body. Try adjusting to the right (righty tighty, lefty loosie). If you have to turn it to the left, try not to turn it more than a 1/4 or 1/2 turn. Turning the head too much to the left may cause the nozzle or head to disconnect itself (while under pressure), this may cause a guiser of water and will get you real wet.
  2. Dirty Nozzles:  If the pattern seems uneven or broken up. The nozzle is dirty. With the water off, grab the sprinkler stem and raise it as if it were spraying water. Use your vise grips to LIGHTLY hold the stem up. Remove the nozzle and pull the filter (with the dental tool or your finger tip). Blow through the filter and nozzle. If this doesn’t remove all the debris, use the dental tools or water to clean further. You may have to disassemble the nozzle completely to get the dirt out. If the filter was completely stopped up, turn the sprinkler zone on/off very quickly to flush the line at this point (with the vice grips in place). Reassemble the nozzle to the head and release the vise grips to let the stem return to the body. NOTE: The purpose of keeping the stem extended through this process is to avoid the opportunity for dirty water to enter the system.  
  3. Broken/Damaged  head: Besides the nozzle mentioned above, the sprinkler body can leak as well. This could be out the bottom, side or top. Sometime the heads can be rebuilt, but at this stage its best to just swap out the head with an identical body and nozzle. If it’s not muddy around the head, attempt to unscrew the complete body out of the ground. Without disturbing the dirt, re-insert the replacement head. If you have to dig it up, use the sharp shooter shovel to expose the  head down to where it connects to the next pipe. It’s best to dig the hole a bit deeper than the head. If water comes out, you do not want the dirty water to reenter the system as mentioned above.  Replace the head and the surrounding dirt.  This sprinkler repair  link has a video included that might be of help.
  4. Sprinkler heads do not recess into the ground after spraying: This is a very common occurrence caused by small dirt particles surrounding the elevated riser at the wiper seal of the sprinkler head after the water is turned off. Grab the head by the tip and spray WD-40 on the riser. Work the shaft until it moves freely. If that doesn’t clear it, replace the head  and rebuild the old one in the sink to get all the dirt out of it.
  5.  Heavy Running or Pooling Water: This could be associated with #3 or it could be a damaged pipe.  With your shovel, LIGHTLY remove the wet dirt, you do not want to cause anymore damage. Dig below the pipe or area to be repaired. Use a coffee can to remove as much of the water and dirt as possible. Make the repair as necessary.
  6. Weeping heads:  Occurs when system is off. Typically you will notice this on days the sprinklers are not running, or you find constant moist spots. Typically, you must disassemble the sprinkler valve and clean it.  Rebuilding the valve may be required as well.
  7. Draining sprinkler head: similar to #6, but usually happens with a head that is located lower that other heads in the zone. This is fairly normal and can be left alone. If it happens in a bad spot and you really don’t like it, you can add a lateral line drain to disperse the water.

 For more detailed information, take a look at these other articles I have written on the subject: Lawn Sprinkler Efficiency Part II, Lawn Sprinkler Efficiency Part I ,  Searching for Lawn Sprinkler Valves, Chasing Lawn Sprinkler Leaks; Finding Sprinkler Valves and Common Problems,Lawn Sprinkler Efficiency Upgrades Part II,  .



Watering your Foundation – Its a Texas Thing Part III

March 23, 2016

Texas-Drought-2011As mentioned in my last post on watering your foundation; Here in North Texas it is essential.  Since this is not a one time event but a regular requirement, you might as well look at a relative permanent approach to the solution. I identified several ways to do this in my last posts on the subject but I wanted to share a bit more permanent method. The concept is the same, but its a bit more work, and you may want to hire an irrigation specialist to do it.

The biggest difference in this solution is capitalizing on the fact that you may already have a permanent in-ground sprinkler system. With this system, you operate it as any other section to your irrigation system profile and its no longer a separate system to take care of.

Criteria of existing lawn sprinkler system: For this to work, you need an automatic lawn sprinkler system and a couple more conditions to make it work.

  1. sprinkler controllerElectronic Irrigation controller: The irrigation controller will be the source of the schedule to water the foundation.
    1. Spare Zone: Most controllers come in 4, 6, 8, 12 (and so on) zones. You will need at least one vacant zone position for this to work. You can query the controller by stepping through the zones. When you select the zone with the controller, look for statements in the readout that could say things like; vacant, not-wired, turned off, etc. It that doesn’t work, open the back half of the controller and look at the incoming wiring. Each position that has a number on it represents a zone. If you find a number with no wire, you should have a vacant zone. If you don’t have any vacant zones, your forward path from this point would be to replace the controller with more zones. This may exceed your budgetary limitations
    2. Spare Wire: In many cases during the initial installation, the cable with the zone wires in it, may exceed the number of connected zones. So look for some coiled up wires in the base of the controller.  If that is the case, you are in luck and can use one of the spare wires. If you have no spare wires but a spare zone on the controller, you would have to add a pair for the new zone. (a colored wire and a common (white) wire).
  2. sprinkler-valveAdding a New Valve: At this point, you have a 1)zone position in the controller, 2) a spare wire for the new zone. Now, locate all the existing valves in the yard. Specifically ones that are close to the house.
    1. In that valve box, look for the same color wire you identified in the controller, if it is not there, check the other valves. Worst case, you may have to bring a new wire to your chosen location.
    2. Dig up around the existing valve and identify which pipe is under pressure all the time. Once identified, turn the main water supply off that feeds the sprinkler system (probably near the water meter), you will cut into the pipe and add a new valve. You may have to run a short piece of wire from the existing valve to the new one to hook it up. The connection will be one colored wire and one “Common”.
    3. When you buy the new valve, make sure it has (low) flow control, and or is designed to work with zones that don’t use a lot of water pressure. The drip lines you use have a low GPM (gallon per minute) rating as well as low pressure.
  3.  Polypipe: Depending on where you locate the new valve, you may need a section of polypipe to get you to the foundation.  You can cut the hose to length and use the polypipe fittings to make up the ends. Make sure the polypipe and fittings are the same dimensions. Since all these connections are on the low pressure side of the system, these fittings are just simple resistance (chinese finger) snap in connectors.
  4. Drip Lines:  From the poly pipe, use the same fitting to transition to the Drip Line. These hoses are designed with drip emitters in the hose every 12 inches.  Run it around the house keeping it about 6 inches from the foundation.  You can bury them a couple of inches or hide them with mulch. Staking them with landscape stakes will help keep them in place as this product does not like to lay flat to the ground. You can purchase the hose in bulk from the Orange Box store of Sprinkler Warehouse. You will need to also purchase inter-hose connectors as well as a way to connect to your water. If you have to make a sharp turn it is better to use a fitting than bending the pipe. You do not want to crimp the hose. Splitting the line with a Tee is totally acceptable, and it will also allow a little better flow control if the go half way around the house with one feed and half with the other.

 

So here is what it looks like in dollars. Admittedly, you can probably do this a little cheaper, but I used high quality components, so this should last for years to come.

DripSys for house

Related articles:https://homeownerbob.wordpress.com/2012/03/05/watering-your-foundation-its-a-texas-thing/

https://homeownerbob.wordpress.com/2012/06/06/watering-your-foundation-getting-ready-for-the-summer/

 


Chasing Lawn Sprinkler Leaks II

July 31, 2013

lawn20edge20pop20up2011My wife complained the water bill had gone to the moon (again) last month. Even HomeownerBOB has sprinkler leaks!! In this post I hope to show another way to identifiy water leaks in automatic lawn sprinklers. After doing the basics, it was obvious, it would take a little more effort.

At this point, I still had no idea where the leak was other than I was confident it was past the valve as the meter was not moving otherwise.

Most sections should use near the same amount of water except where it might be a very small section or (in my case) I have 3 sections using emitter tube for drip irrigation, but even in this case there should be some relative similarities.

  1. Access the water meter for the property, clean the meter face or get to where you can watch the meter move.
  2. Make sure all other water devices are turned off or wont come on during this test
  3. If you have a controller that has a test sequence, set it to 1 minute. If not, have some one manually operate it at one minute per section.
  4. Have a friend turn it on while you are positioned to watch the meter
  5. Once it starts, watch the meter (this is not real scientific, but you are looking for a difference in the trend.
  6. You should beable to recognize when the watering changes from one zone to the next as the water meter will stop (very briefly) then start again.
  7. In most cases the meter will briefly run very fast, then (noticeably) slow down.
  8. Compare the speed and gallons used by each section. (your comparison should be like for like, in other words, pop-up sections to pop-up sections and so on.
  9. If you find a section that does not trend the same way (i.e. does not slow down after the initial turn up), it is likely that this is your problem zone. In my case, I had two that looked funny.
  10. Stop the test and run just the sections that appeared perculiar. Walk the entire section, head by head to find larger quantities of water.

100_0203In my case, the problem was in the emitter section. It is not unusual to spring a leak in these sections either due to driving a shovel (my wife) through one, or one of the ends coming open. It ended up being neither, but was caused by an inline filter I installed (below ground under this cover) to keep the emitters clean. This has happened to me before on a different section as I used these fancy filters that self clean them selves, unfortuntly they tend to stick open, and they have to be replaced. I replaced them with a non-self cleaning type. I have one more that could go bad, so its only a mater of time.

Make sure and click on the Lawn Sprinkler tab to see all my articles on lawn sprinklers.


Things to Know Before Installing an Automatic Sprinkler System

August 28, 2010

It takes approximately  27,154 gallons of water to apply one inch of water to one acre of land.

After writing so many articles on lawn sprinklers, repair and maintenance, I was approached to write an article on things to know or consider before installing a new sprinkler system. This is not a ” How To” install a sprinkler system but what questions to ask yourself and a contractor prior to having a system installed.

It can be very difficult to judge one design/bid against another as no one irrigator will design a system exactly the same as another. You can limit the difference by requesting certain components or brands, but this may add to the difficulty as many companies will play off any differences between them. You might find it more beneficial to define performance and expectation over specific components.

  1. Watering Concrete: As a cost cutting method, some contractors may elect to spray water across a narrow walkway or sidewalk in lieu of boring under the concrete to set a head. If this is important to you, make this point clear: No or minimal watering side walks or driveways. Ask for examples for better understanding.
  2. Zones Designed Specific to the Needs: All lawns have micro climates where more or less water is needed. The contractor can use different heads and design methods to provide more or less water. Basically, you would not want a sprinkler head that is in the deep shade on the same zone as one that is watering in the full-sun; as the full sun area will require more cycle time than the shaded area. Additionally flower beds have different watering needs over turf. Segregating flower beds into their own zones will allow you to manage your water better. TIP: In the extreme heat of the summer, it can be difficult (and costly) to keep the turf green. For me, I go into survival mode, by reducing the watering time to just keep the turf alive. On the otherhand, since my flower beds are covered with drip emitters, I increase their duration.  It may save you a bit of water.
  3. Drip Line Emitters: Consider using drip or emitter lines for flower beds. This style of watering will bring the water to the plant roots without wasting water through the air. I installed drip line emitter style  in both the flower beds and parkways  over 3 years ago and have been very pleased with the results. TIP: They can be damaged easily, so you have to be careful when digging around them.
  4. Name Brand Components: If the contractor can not provide you with material literature, ask them to provide the name and model numbers of the major material to be used. Specifically: Backflow preventer, valves, sprinkler heads/nozzles, the controller and any additional ancillary equipment you may request.  Do some research on the internet regarding the models, performance and any customer complaint issues.
  5. Efficient water nozzles: If you have read any of my sprinkler articles you know that stream heads over spray heads do not atomize the water as much, putting more water on the ground and less in the air. Low Arc heads also increase efficiency. See Lawn Sprinkler Nozzles.

Irrigation Controllers Are a Subject Within Itself. Unless you request specific features, most contractors will provide you a “builders grade” controller. This is also the grade of controller you will find at the orange box store.  If you have read any of my articles, I am an advocate of the Sprinkler Warehouse as they provide multiple types, styles, models and brands of all sprinkler supplies. Look at the site for a controller you like or features that you find necessary.

  1. Basic Controller: Basic controllers will provide a minimum number of stations to support the number of sprinkler zones installed. Additionally they will include timed events, day of week, time of day type stuff. Most basic controllers can accept an  external rain gauge. The controller should include a 9V battery backup to ensure the clock remains current.
  2. External Sensors: Even basic controllers will support external sensors and typically they do not have to be the same brand. So if you find a sensor you like, it will usually state it will work with any basic controller. The most popular sensors are rain, wind and freeze.  In some municipalities, rain/freeze sensors are required by code and you can receive a citation for the system being active during those times. Additionally, time of day has become an issue, but that can be easily controlled by the clock settings on the basic controller. If your municipality requires a rain/freeze sensor, have it included in the contractor bid.
  3. Intuitive controller:  To go to the next step, you may consider a controller that uses weather data to determine watering cycles. Some Wifi connected controllers simply use the collected data to just turn the unit off in anticipation of rain or freeze. However, some can be more intelligent and actively manage the water distribution to the point of deciding when and when not to water. There are a lot of new Wifi enabled devices out there and at this point I dont have a specific recommendation, so you will just have to read the feature set as described by the manufacturer. So far, I am a fan of the moisture sensor over the weather feature as I see the sensor measurement as being real-time over the weather report still being a bit of a speculation. Many times equipment manufacturers add features to controllers with more zones. You may have to consider a controller with a greater number of stations than required to get some of the feature sets. Ask the contractor if they have any form of reasonably priced moisture content sensors as part of their package.
  4. Test Function: May not be found in the very basic controllers but it is a valuable tool. It is basically an additional run program that is based on very short watering sessions. Setting the Controller to “TEST” will allow you to walk the yard while the sprinklers are running through all the zones. This allows you to visit each head to identify any problems that need correcting.  An enhanced feature is “Remote Control”. Using a hand-held transmitter, the user can turn on/off sections without returning to the controller. You may find this desirable if you have a very large lot, otherwise the test feature will probably work fine. This is one of the big selling features of the the Wifi enabled controllers as you can use your phone to activate the system.
  5. Water Usage: How ever you spin it, your water usage will dramatically increase. Even with a good efficient system, you will be watering more thoroughly than in the past. Managing your system electronically will ensure the most efficient use of water.

Here are some things you need to know or ask yourself before you start the process.

  1. Water Usage: It takes approximately  27,154 gallons of water to apply one inch of water to one acre of land. No mater how you cut it; using an automatic lawn sprinkler system will increase your water bills. Using the number listed above as the basis;  that works out to about .623 gallons of water per square foot. So; take your property lot size (ex. 50×100=5000) minus the square footage covered by the house, driveway, sidewalk and garage (ex. 1500H + 800D + 200S + 400G = 2900 sq ft.) Property size minus non-landscape surfaces  equals area to be watered. (ex. 5000-2900=2100 sq.ft.). Multiply .623 times the remaining square footage (ex. 2100 x .623= 1308 gallons of water to achieve 1″ per watering cycle). Climate and rainfall will impact the amount of watering but if you figure watering 3 times per week, it would work out to 15,699 gallons per month figured at 100% efficiency. Most typical sprinkler systems are 50-80% efficient (adjusted to 23,548 to 28,258 gallons per month). It all adds up.
  2. Existing Water Meter: Most of the time, sprinkler systems are installed using the existing water meter as the cost of a new meter can cost over $500 to have the city install one.
  3. New Water Meter: Because of the initial cost, most people will use the existing meter, but consider these facts as part of your decision: 1)Many cities calculate the sewage charges in your water bill  based on water used, even though they may provide a summer time allowance, it may only be for 3 months. Here where I live, it is not uncommon to use the sprinklers 9 months of the year. 2) Older homes with 3/4 in meter may not provide your system adequate water pressure, 3) Using a larger meter with higher pressure may actually reduce the amount of equipment required for the system. Additionally,  pressure and volume will impact the amount of zones and heads needed to water the property. In the initial evaluation, the irrigator will validate the meter and the water pressure. If it is border line, they will normally recommend an upgrade or an additional meter. You may also ask if upgrading the meter to the next larger size will impact the bid in a way to reduce his cost. This may come into play especially with large properties vs. small lots.
  4. Sprinkler Head Styles: If you have a small residential city lot, expect the  bid to include pop-up style of heads. If your property is over 1/3 of an acre expect to see a mixture of pop-up and rotary or oscillating heads. Typically, properties with open landscape (large turf areas) will be designed with head that can throw water further than 15 feet. This saves water and material. TIP: It is acceptable to have different type heads in a system but not acceptable to have different type heads in the same zone.
  5. Warranty: Ask for at least a year, but two is better. Most any problem will surface in the first two years.
  6. Spare parts: Honestly; sprinklers require a lot of maintenance to retain peak performance. Damage from lawn mowing  is the biggest culprit. Using the exact same heads and nozzles will ensure  peak performance. Most contractors will be using a different grade of sprinkler head than found at the orange box store. Ask the contractor to provide extra sprinkler heads, nozzles and risers (ask for minimum of 1 of each or 10% in heads/nozzles/risers used in the system). Some where around 10-20% extra sprinkler bodies and 2-3 each of the different nozzles. Also ask for at least one extra sprinkler valve for every 10. Whether you do the maintenance yourself, hire the same contractor or someone else, this will guarantee that you retain the integrity of the original design.

Assuming you are dealing with a reputable licenced irrigator they will appreciate your preparation and gained knowledge.. However, some of the questions and requirements provided may not set well with others. That alone, will help in weeding out the undesirables.

If you are looking for more information or greater detail, take a look at this site as it does a great job of explaining Efficient Irrigation.


Finding a Lost Sprinkler Head

July 18, 2009

Lawn Sprinkler4Finding a lost sprinkler head can be a challenge, simple in concept but difficult if you don’t have a plan.  Sprinkler heads can fail to rise to the occasion when under pressure. The longer they fail to operate the harder they may be to find. 

Perform these items first:

  1. If available, look at the drawing used during the installation system, it may work as a road map in identify the general location.
  2. Look for an obvious brown/dry spot. Run the sprinkler, it may pop up but be clogged. If so, disassemble it, clean it, reassemble it, install it and you are done. If not, go to #3.
  3. If the entire zone appears to be weak, you may find water pooling. This could actually be a broken head or pipe as in this condition you are consuming way more water than the design.
  4. With the sprinklers running, look for mushy ground  and water pooling. The head may be working, but it is too covered up to rise above the grass. Use a shovel to work the dirt (carefully). It may pop up once the dirt around it has been loosened up.

Missing SprinklerOkay, that was the easy stuff, now it gets hard. Go to the Orange Box store and purchase some sprinkler flags. Place a flag at each known head. Measure the distances between the heads as shown in the drawing.  You should find an area that does not measure (in relative terms) like the other ones. Start poking around with a shovel (carefully) in an attempt to expose the head 

Still no luck? Using the same method described in Finding Leaks in Sprinkler Zones and Common Leaks. You will need to turn off all the heads in that zone. Let the water run, hopefully,  it will show up since you are concentrating all the pressure to the missing head. Check your meter and look for moderate movement in the meter. If you have no movement in the meter the sprinkler head could be capped or not there at all.

Still didn’t find it?  You may not have a head there at all and the design just did not cover it well. So you may consider adding a head if the zone can accommodate the additional water use.

You may also take a look at one of my other articles for help in the Lawn Sprinkler catagory.


Lawn Sprinkler Nozzles, Can Changing Them Make a Difference?

July 12, 2009

sprinklers-01   

Heavy misting of the sprinkler heads can result in as much as a 25% loss in water.    

New sprinkler heads and nozzles coming on the market are claiming sizable water savings, but how much water can you really save (if any)?  Stream sprayers are normally found only in orbital or rotary heads and are typically found in larger landscaped areas and can be spaced 20′ to 30′ apart. With an open landscape, these heads can water more ground with less water. Up until now, there have been few options for smaller residential properties other than traditional pop-up heads using spray type nozzles. Spray nozzles are designed for spacing limitation from 8′ to 15′ and as with any type water sprayer, there is a correlation between distance and trajectory or arc necessary to obtain the distance. The greater the distance, the greater the height of the arc to obtain the distance. Greater distance = greater misting.    

But trajectory alone is not the only culprit to misting. High winds, high pressure, evaporation and excessive overspray all contribute to the water loss factor associated with misting. This misting can account for a loss of 10-25%. It’s this misting factor (more characteristic of spray nozzles over stream nozzles) that contributes to a lower efficiency found with the spray nozzle.  And its the low misting factor found with the stream sprayer that makes for an attractive alternative.     

In an attempt to make automatic sprinkler systems more efficient, some manufacturers have created a stream type nozzle designed as a direct replacements for the standard spray nozzle (aka pop-up sprayer). If you have read my earlier posts on lawn sprinklers you know that pop-up type spray heads can lose 10% or more of their water spray to the wind and evaporation.   Before we look at the differences between spray nozzles and stream nozzles, lets consider the ways to reduce sprinkler misting. Some of these items can be readily addressed, some are design considerations.    

Standard Spray Nozzles: Standard spray nozzles atomize the water to equally spray or spread the water out in an even flow throughout their spray pattern. They are great choice for small residential properties as they provide good water distribution in a reasonable amount of time. Additionally they have many different nozzles to fit the various application requirements.   

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  1. To much pressure: Optimally pop-up sprayers work best at 30 psi. High pressure can cause excessive misting.  TIP: To test the zone water pressure, you have to remove a head, replace it with a riser and thread on a water pressure gauge, then run the zone and check the pressure while the zone is spraying water.
  2. Don’t water during high winds:   This can be managed manually or you can add a wind anemometer to your sprinkler controller that will shut down the system at certain wind speeds. Even though we typically water in the night-time hours (to avoid excessive evaporation), windy conditions are as common during the night-time as during the day.
  3. Keep water spray output close to the ground: This can be achieved by designing a system where the heads are closer (such as 10′ apart compared to 15′ apart)  Spray nozzles with shorter patterns use lower trajectories, will atomize the water less and have less distance to fall to the ground.  This item has to be addressed during the initial design as shortening patterns in an existing system could be considered a “do over”. I designed and installed my current system prior to stream sprayers, I took this approach by using 10′ radii heads. The water stays very close to the ground when the system is running. Granted, it caused me to use a lot more heads and zones. If I were to tackle it today, the stream sprayers would not only impact my water  usage, but cut back on material and zones installed. 
  4. Deliver the water in streams not in a spray or mist: The more you atomize the water, the lighter it becomes, allowing the wind to cause the water to drift away and evaporate before it has time to absorb into the ground or plant material.
  5. Deliver water directly to the roots through drip irrigation.  Flower beds can be easily converted (assuming your sprinkler system has specific zones for flower beds). For grass and turf this is a bit more involved but plausible.  In my current system I created specific zones for the parkway and driveway. Using direct bury drip lines, I am able to keep the turf green with virtually no run off. This is another condition that would need to be addressed in the original design.
  6. Refer to the  Alliance of Water Efficiency, for additional water saving tips. 

Water Use and Abuse   

There is a fine line between efficient water delivery and adequate water coverage. Many irrigators will “over cover” an installation to ensure all the grounds receive adequate water. The Irrigator wants to over-saturate the turf to avoid brown spots or low coverage areas, as making a re-trip to install additional heads can be costly. Creating a system that uses excessive water will cause them less problems in the long run. But in doing so, there may be a high degree of waste associated with the design. Don’t get me wrong, the lawn sprinkler business is very competitive and most people won’t spend the money to get a system with high-efficiency. Since water is still cheap and fairly plentiful this methodology will be with us for a while. However, the purpose of this article is to attempt to make your existing system more efficient and if you have a decent design, you can make some reasonable changes that will not terribly affect the performance of the system.   

Lawn%20edge%20pop%20up%201Stream Sprayers: Stream spray nozzles provides multiple streams from the nozzle in the defined pattern (90, 180, 360 degree pattern). To provide adequate coverage, the streams spray in a rotation throughout the pattern.  The beauty of the stream type nozzle over the spray nozzle is it will project water similar distances without high levels of misting. However, based on their delivery you may actually have to run the systems longer to get similar watering results, but since they are more efficient, it will not negatively impact the system performance.  With the move toward greater efficiency, the stream principle has been introduced to traditional pop-up sprayer. Some manufacturers provide them as replacement nozzles, where others require you to change out the complete head. TIP: Look at one of your spray heads to determine the brand, go online to see if the manufacturer makes a replacement nozzle, don’t be surprised if your local orange box store does not carry them. I have used Sprinkler Warehouse for many of my sprinkler parts and speciality items.   

The Test Case: I created a model zone with 4 heads, 2-180 degree heads and 2-360 degree heads.  I used the Toro 570 model body as it can be equipped with either the spray nozzle  or retrofitted with the stream nozzle. Optimally, the comparison is based on a 30 psi rating at the head.    

In converting the system from spray to stream we need to match the pattern as close as possible. Since spray heads are a mature product, many patterns and styles are available, but with the stream nozzles, the available styles are still limited. With the Toro brand, the new stream nozzles are not a direct comparison in spray distances and the stream nozzles may have to be tuned to reduce the pattern to avoid excessive over-spray onto the sidewalk. But they were pretty close.   

Stream Spray Matrix

Spray Nozzles De-rated by 10%

   

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Spray Nozzles De-rated by 25%%

   

 From a cost comparison, it is beneficial to be able to re-use your existing spray heads if at all possible,  as having to buy new heads as well as the nozzles will add up quickly. When you look at the water saved vs. the cost of the change, it did not prove out (for me) since water is still very cheap. However many municipalities tack on additional charges based on water usage, so it could make a difference for you. If you are interested in seeing how much difference it makes, take the water saved (listed in the table and calculate it against your dollar per gallon charges found on your water bill.   

Based on the results of the chart, here is my observations using the 10% de-ration chart.   

  1. It requires 86.72 minutes using the stream spray nozzles to provide the same precipitation value as the spray nozzle provides in 60 minutes.
  2. Even though it requires 26.72 minutes more, the stream sprayers use 393 less gallons
  3. Factoring in a 10% misting factor, the stream sprayers use 5.77% less water or 471.63 gallons of water per month.

At a 25% deration the numbers are a bit more dramatic as you could save over 1700 gallons of water per month.   

Conclusion:    

  • Consider using the stream sprayers in a new design as you can use less heads, less zones, less pipe, less fittings as well as less water. 
  • Convert existing sprinkler zones to stream sprays where high wind is normal or misting is excessive.

Recommendation: If you choose to replace your existing nozzles/heads, change one zone at a time. Let it run through part of the season, compare the results by looking at your turf . For proper watering don’t mix spray nozzles with the stream nozzles in the same zone. To obtain an adequate amount of water similar to the spray nozzles zones, the watering time may have to be increased on the stream nozzle section.   

To see the entire series of lawn sprinkler articles go to Lawn Sprinkler tab on the HomeownerBOB web page.   

Good Luck